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Enabling better global research outcomes in soil, plant & environmental monitoring.

XE-PAM Research Fluorometer

Like all PAM fluorometers, the XE-PAM fluorometer measures only the fluorescence signal which is excited by very short pulses of measuring light. Different from other PAM fluorometers, which utilise LEDs as measuring light source, the probing flashes of a XE-PAM fluorometer are produced by a Xe-discharge flash lamp.

Peculiar properties of the Xe flash lamp are high peak intensities and a broad emission spectrum including the ultraviolet and visible spectral range. These peculiarities result in outstanding sensitivity for fluorescence detection and the option to freely select the spectral range of probing radiation.

Main Control Unit XE-PAM

Main Control Unit XE-PAM

General Design

Power supply: Selectable 115/230 V AC, 50/60 Hz, 0.64/0.32 A
Dimensions (with carrying-handle): 53 cm x 15 cm x 28 cm (W x H x D) aluminium housing
Weight: 7.9 kg

Control Unit for Actinic Illumination

Sockets: Trigger input, BNC, external trigger signals from 5 to 12 V DC and maximum current of 3 mA. Two trigger outputs (start and stop), BNC, 5 V DC, synchronous with start and stop of illumination
Settings: 12 intensity levels for red LED-array and for halogen lamp. Illumination times adjustable from 0.1s to 10 min in 4 x 10 steps, and continuous light.
Special function: Automatic selection of modulation frequency 64 Hz when actinic light is switched on

Clock for Actinic Light and Saturation Pulses

Settings: Clock interval timer, adjustable between 1 s and 10 h in 5 x 10 steps. Selection between timing of actinic light or saturation pulses

Control Unit for Xenon-measuring Flash Lamp, Photodiode Detector and Signal Processing

Digital display: Red LED-display, 3½ digits
Settings: Measuring flash frequency: 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 and 64 Hz. Pump-and-probe delay: 0.05 ms, 30 ms and 500 ms, or defined by external trigger signal. Gain: 12 settings. Damping: 12 settings ranging from time constants 9 ms to 4.7 s. Manual and automatic zero offset
Sockets: Trigger input, BNC, for external trigger signals between 5 to 12 V DC and maximum current of 35 mA. Trigger output, BNC, 12 V DC, synchronised with measuring flashes. Analogue output, BNC, -0.5 to +10 V. Monitor output, BNC, maximum 10 V

Control Unit for Saturation Pulses

Sockets: Trigger input, BNC, external trigger signals from 5 to 12 V DC and maximum current of 3 mA. Two trigger outputs (start and stop), BNC, 5 V DC, synchronous with begin and end of saturation pulse
Settings: 12 intensity levels. Pulse times adjustable between 1 ms and 10 s in 4 x 10 steps, and continuous light
Special function: Automatic selection of modulation frequency 64 Hz during saturation pulses

Optical Unit ED-101US/M

Design: Black anodised aluminium body featuring two light-guiding rods arranged at a right angle with respect to each other; three additional optical ports provided for fibre optics and optional light sources, light-tight lid with injection hole, mounting arm with terminal duct with inner diameter of 1.5 cm
Weight: 1 kg

Xenon-Measuring Flash Lamp XE-MF

Design: Flash lamp, Hamamatsu Type L4641. Filter holder, for 3 x 3 cm optical filters, up to 1.5 cm thick. Connecting cable, 1.4 m
Dimensions: 14.0 cm x 10.5 cm x 6.5 cm (L x W x H)
Weight: 750 g

Photodiode Detector XE-PD

Design: Signal detection, PIN-photodiode 1 x 1 cm. Filter holder, for 3 x 3 cm optical filters, up to 1.5 cm thick.
Dimensions: 9.7 cm x 7.1 cm x 7.8 cm (L x W x H). Connecting cable, 1.4 m
Weight: 350 g

Stand with Base Plate ST-101

Dimensions: Base plate, 39.5 cm x 30 cm. Height of stand, height, 76.5 cm, diameter 1.5 cm
Weight: 2.8 kg

The XE-PAM Fluorescence Measuring System combines outstanding measuring sensitivity with highly flexible experimental design. The range of samples includes suspensions of chloroplasts and micro algae at chlorophyll concentrations as low as 1 µ g/litre but also green leaves.

The methods to analyse photosystem II chlorophyll fluorescence comprise saturation pulse and pump-and probe analyses. The availability of both methods provides the unique possibility to directly compare fluorescence yield changes elicited by single turn-over flashes with that elicited by multiple turn-over saturation pulses.

Optical Unit ED-101US/M

The potential range of applications of the XE-PAM is not limited to photosystem II analysis but comprises all investigations which depend on the selective and accurate assessment of small fluorescence signals.

For example the XE-PAM has been used to determine epidermal UV screening in leaves, to follow NADH and NADPH concentration changes in cell organelles or cell suspensions, and to assess the transmembrane proton gradient in chloroplasts by measurements of 9 – aminoacridine fluorescence in isolated chloroplasts.

Using the electronic interface box PDA-100, the XE-PAM system can be completely controlled by the WinControl software running on Windows computers.