The WATER-PAM is the PAM fluorometer of choice when very low chlorophyll contents of samples require outstandingly sensitive fluorescence detection. The three different types of the WATER-PAM are designed to analyse suspension samples, surfaces, or a continuous water flow, respectively.
The parameters measured are chlorophyll content and photosynthetic activity. All WATER-PAM chlorophyll fluorometers can be operated in stand-alone mode which facilitates measurements in the field.
Universal Control Unit PAM-CONTROL
For control of Photomultiplier-detector PM-MF and LED
|Data memory:||128 kB CMOS RAM providing memory for 4000 data sets|
|Display:||2 x 24 character alphanumerical LCD with backlight|
|User interface:||2 x 4 touch-sensitive keys to operate the internal mode menu|
|Measured parameters:||Fo, Fm, Fm’, F, Fv/Fm (max. Yield), ΔF/Fm’ (Yield), qP, qN, NPQ, PAR (using special micro quantum sensor), ETR (i.e. PAR x ΔF/Fm’)|
|Power supply:||Internal rechargeable battery 12 V/2 Ah, providing power for at least 10 000 Yield measurements, automatic power/off, battery charger MINI-PAM/L (100 to 240 V AC)|
|Dimensions:||17.6 cm x 11.5 cm x 9.5 cm (L x W x H)|
|Weight:||2 kg (incl. battery)|
|Operating temperature:||-5 to +45°C|
|Actinic light:||Drives up to three actinic LEDs|
|Aux input:||Receives signals from temperature and light sensors|
|Aux output:||Sends control signals for external LED drivers|
|Charge:||Socket for battery charger|
|Far red light:||Up to three far red LEDs can be driven|
|Measuring light:||Capacity to drive up to three LEDs both as measuring and actinic light sources, 12 LED intensity and 12 pulse frequency settings are available, automatic change of measuring light frequency.|
|Output:||Provides analogue signal to chart recorder|
|Photomultiplier:||Full control of photomultiplier PM-MF|
|RS232:||Data transfer to computer using WinControl V. 2 software|
|Software:||WinControl-2 (Windows 3.1x/9x/Me/NT4/2000/XP). WinControl-3 (Windows XP/Vista, Windows 7 and 8).|
Emitter-Detector Unit WATER-ED (red)
|Design:||Metal housing with LED array, photomultiplier, pulse signal preamplifier and cables connecting to photomultiplier (PM) and AUX output sockets of PAM-CONTROL unit. Featuring measuring chamber with 15 mm diameter quartz cuvette|
|LED Array:||Pulse modulated measuring light, three LEDs peaking at 650 nm. Actinic light/saturation pulses, 12 LEDs peaking at 660 nm. Far-red light, three LEDs peaking at 740 nm. Alternative to far-red light, blue LEDs (460 nm) can be build in for preferential PS I excitation in cyanobacteria. Actinic intensity up to 2000 µmol quanta m-2 s-1 of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Saturation pulse intensity up to 4000 µmol quanta m-2 s-1|
|Signal detection:||Photomultiplier detector based on Photosensor Module H-6779-01 (Hamamatsu) with high red sensitivity; featuring pulse preamplifier and automatic overload switch-off; fluorescence detection at wavelengths > 710 nm|
|Dimensions:||11 cm x 9 cm x 8 cm (L x W x H)|
|Weight:||600 g (incl. cable 0.6 m long)|
Emitter-Detector Unit WATER-ED/B (blue)
Identical to Emitter-Detector Unit WATER-ED except:
|LED Array:||Pulse modulated measuring light, three LEDs peaking at 460 nm. Actinic light/saturation pulses, 10 LEDs peaking at 460 nm. Far-red light, three LEDs peaking at 740 nm|
Stirring Device WATER-S
|Design:||Miniature stirring motor in plastic housing with adapter for mounting on top of the cuvette in the emitter-detector unit. Equipped with 10 disposable flattened Perspex rods. Self-contained unit powered by a long-life 3 V Lithium Battery. With potentiometer for adjustment of stirring rate|
|Dimensions:||8 cm x 5 cm x 3 cm (L x W x H)|
|Weight:||95 g (including battery)|
Spherical Micro Quantum Sensor US-SQS/WB
|Connects to:||WATER-PAM, PAM-100 (PDA-100), XE-PAM (PDA-100), DUAL-PAM-100, ULM-500 (AUX), PAM-2500 and MINI-PAM (instead of Leaf Clip Holder 2030-B or 2060 M)|
|Connector:||Same as Leaf Clip Holder 2030-B. Includes hood for suspension cuvette, amplifier for aux input of PAM Control|
|Signal output:||0 to 2.5 V DC / 0 to 1000 μmol m-2 s-1 or 0 to 2.5 V DC / 0 to 20.000 μmol m-2 s-1 Power Provided by connected instrument|
|Cable length:||3 m + 0.5 m|
|Size:||Sensor: Diameter 1 cm, length: 11 cm;
Hood: Diameter 3.4 cm height: 3.2 cm;
Amplifier: 5 x 5 x 5 cm (W x L x H)
The WATER-PAM chlorophyll fluorometers achieve outstanding sensitivity by fluorescence detection with a particularly red-sensitive photomultiplier combined with special preamplifier electronics. In this way, detection limits for suspensions down to 0.1 µg chlorophyll/litre are achieved.
Damage to the susceptible photomultiplier tube by external radiation is averted by an automatic switch-off circuit. Consequently, the photomultiplier tube is shielded from external light during measurements.
A further feature of WATER-PAM chlorophyll fluorometers is that they can be operated independently from line connection and computer by the battery-powered PAM-CONTROL unit.
The same PAM-CONTROL unit functions as a physical interface between measuring unit and computer for operation of the WATER-PAM by the WinControl software.