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Enabling better global research outcomes in soil, plant & environmental monitoring.

TS-100 High-Efficiency Aspirated Radiation Shield

Research-grade accuracy using only 80 mA.

The TS-100 represents a breakthrough in the accurate measurement of air temperature and humidity by providing excellent sensor protection using a fraction of the power of other shields. The unique design and cutting-edge low-power fan make it the first research-grade fan aspirated radiation shield that is practical for use on battery or solar powered stations.

Due to power limitations, remote stations have typically been restricted to using less accurate, naturally aspirated shields. These shields can cause measurement errors of 1°C to 10°C in low-wind and high solar-load conditions (Huwald, 2009). The TS-100 solves this problem, allowing researchers to finally make the most accurate measurements no matter the location.

Radiation-induced Temperature Increase (RITI):

There is no reference standard for the elimination of radiation effects on air temperature measurement, but well-designed aspirated shields minimise this effect. In the absence of a standard, RITI was analyzed in long-term rests over snow and grass surfaces by comparing temperature measurements from nine replicate TS-100 shields to measurements from two replicate aspirated shields from Met One (Model 076B) and two replicate aspirated shields from R.M. Young (Model 43502).

Comparisons among shields were made with ST-110 thermistors in all shields.

Difference Among Individual Replicate Shields < 0.1°C
Aspiration Rate 6 m/s-1 at full speed; 3 m/s-1 at half speed
Fan Input Voltage Requirement 12V DC
Fan Current Drain 80mA at full speed; 25mA at half speed
Fan Dust and Water Protection IP55 *
Dimensions 22cm height, 27cm diameter
Mass 840g
Cables 5m of shielded, twisted-pair wire for fan and air temperature sensors.
Additional cable available in multiples of 5m.
Santoprene rubber jacket (high water resistance, high UV stability, flexibility in cold conditions)
Pigtail lead wires

*The fan is extremely well sealed against water and dust, with an ingress protection rating of 55, called IP55. The higher the number, the better the protection. The first digit in the IP rating indicates protection against particle entry, rated out of 6. A 5 indicates minimal dust entry with no interference with fan operation. The second digit indicates water protection rated out of 9, with 8 being waterproof and suited for continuous immersion. A 5 indicates that water sprayed on the fan from any direction shall have no harmful effects. Typically, fans have particle and water protection ratings of 2 to 3, indicating moderate particle and water protection, but no dust protection.

Research Grade Accuracy – Extensive tests with replicate shields over the past three years have shown the TS-100 compares favourably (+/- 0.02°C) to the high-power aspirated shields from Met One and R. M. Young in all conditions. Each unit comes with an included precision thermistor providing a measurement uncertainty of ±0.1°C right out of the box.

Unique Low-Power Fan – The TS-100 features an adjustable high-efficiency fan drawing only 80 mA (one-Watt; 12 VDC) on full power, and can be turned down to 28 mA (0.3 Watts) using pulse width modulation (PWM) at night without affecting accuracy. The fan is powered and controlled by a datalogger and features constantan lead wires to reduce thermal conductivity, and a tachometer output for monitoring fan speed and performance.

New-Age Shape – The unique geometry of the TS-100 enhances the natural aspiration of the unit eliminating the need for a large fan. The coanda-style inlet and inner venturi contour allow efficient airflow in both high-winds and still air. This saves power and reduces maintenance by minimising ingress of dust and debris.

Durability – The TS-100 is built for long-term performance in all climates, from arctic, to desert, to maritime conditions. The housing is cast from rugged Geloy plastic, while the internal fan has an impressive Ingress Protection Rating of 55 (IP55), making it virtually impervious to moisture and dirt. All internal spaces are filled with insulating foam to minimise heat transfer and increase field ruggedness. The TS-100 is so tough, it is currently used on the solar powered weather station at a record-setting cold location in the contiguous USA – Peter Sinks, Utah; where night-time temperatures regularly fall to – 40°C in winter months. See details below.

Sensor Compatibility – In addition to the standard included thermistor, the TS-100’s sensor port can quickly accommodate various combinations of other thermistors, PRTs, and humidity probes using one of the available adaptor plugs. We currently stock port adaptors for the Apogee model ST-110 precision thermistor (included), Apogee model ST-300 PRT, Campbell Scientific model CS215, Vaisala models HMP110 and HMP60, and the Rotronic HC2-S. If you use a different probe, please contact us directly to discuss compatibility.

Warranty and Support – The TS-100 comes with an industry-leading four (4) year warranty and is fully backed by Apogee Instruments’ outstanding customer support.


The TS-100 has been deployed for the past year on a weather station at a record-setting cold location in the contiguous United States – Peter Sinks, Utah. It is used to accurately measure extremely cold air temperatures that occur at the site. (Note the Apogee SP-230 all-season pyranometer in the picture as well.)

petersinksstation3

The Peter Sinks site uses two yellow-bead thermistors and two PRTs in an Apogee TS-100 to make replicate measurements.