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Enabling better global research outcomes in soil, plant & environmental monitoring.

P700 & Chlorophyll Fluorescence Measuring System

The DUAL-PAM-100 measuring system lifts the parallel recording of photosystem II and photosystem I activities to a new level. The outstanding opto-electronical properties of the DUAL-PAM-100 result from more than 25 years of experience with the PAM-101/102/103 chlorophyll fluorometer combined with exceptional modern engineering and craftsmanship.

Essentially, the DUAL-PAM-100 possesses both the properties of a high performance PAM chlorophyll fluorometer and a dual wavelength absorbance spectrometer.

The DUAL-PAM-100 measuring system is available in two different versions: the MODULAR version has its light sources and signal detection located in separate measuring heads which are controlled by a central unit.

In comparison, light sources and signal detection are located in the central unit in the FIBRE version, in which sample and instrument are connected by special fibre optics.

The MODULAR version permits the easy exchange of measuring heads thus allowing a wide range of different applications like determinations of NADPH or pH gradients.

The FIBRE version lacks this flexibility but may be advantageous when only photosystem II and photosystem I activities are of interest. Both, the MODULAR and the FIBRE version, can be used to measure leaves, macroalgae, microalgae and cyanobacteria.

Power-and-Control-Unit DUAL-C

Microcontroller: 2 x AVR-RISC (8 MHz) + 4 MB SRAM; 256 000 data points with 12 bit resolution can be stored
Communication: PC interface: USB 1.1, 2.0 and 3.0 compatible
User interface: Windows computer with DualPAM software
Power supply: Rechargeable sealed lead-acid battery 12 V/2 Ah; Battery Charger MINI-PAM/L (100 to 240 V AC)
Power consumption: During basic operation 160 mA
Sockets: 6 ports for measuring heads (power for single wavelength and double wavelength modulated measuring light, power for 2 LED arrays, input for 2 detectors), socket for stirrer (plus speed controller and standby switch), AUX (for Leaf Clip 2030-B or Spherical Micro Quantum Sensor US-SQS/WB or Cosine-Corrected Mini Quantum Sensor US-MQS/WB), USB (for USB cable), TRIGGER IN (input for 5 V rectangular signals to trigger fast kinetics externally), TRIGGER OUT (output of 5 V rectangular signals to trigger external devices), 2 EXT. SIGNALS (input for external DC signals. Range 0 – 1V or 0 – 5 V), and CHARGE (for MINI-PAM/L charger).
Dimensions: 31 cm x 16 cm x 33.5 cm (W x H x D), with carrying handle
Weight: 4.5 kg

Measuring Head with P700 NIR Emitter DUAL-E

Measuring light: P700 dual-wavelength emitter. Sample wavelength 830 nm, reference wavelength, 870 nm
Actinic light: Far-red LED lamp: 720 nm. Chip-on-board (COB) LED array: 635 nm for continuous actinic illumination, maximum 3000 μmol m-2 s-1 PAR. Saturating single turnover flashes, maximal 200 000 μmol m-2 s-1 PAR, adjustable between 5 and 50 μs. Multiple turnover flashes, maximal 20 000 μmol m-2 s-1 PAR, adjustable between 1 and 1000 ms
Dimensions: 10.5 cm x 5.5 cm x 7 cm (L x W x H)
Weight: 400 g (incl. cables, 1 m long)
Measuring Head with Detector, DUAL-DB (Blue) or DUAL-DR (Red)
Measuring light: Fluorescence emitter: 460 nm (DUAL-DB); or 620 nm (DUAL-DR)
Actinic light: Blue (460 nm) LED lamp for continuous actinic illumination, maximum PAR 1100 μmol m-2 s-1. Chip-on-board LED array identical to that of DUAL-E measuring head
Signal detection: PIN photodiode with special pulse preamplifier for measuring P700 and fluorescence changes with maximal time resolution of 30 μs. Fluorescence is detected at wavelengths longer than 700 nm
Dimensions: 15 cm x 5.5 cm x 7 cm (L x W x H)
Weight: 500 g (including cables, 1 m long)

Transport Box

Design: Aluminium box with custom foam packing for DUAL-PAM-100 and accessories
Dimensions: 60 cm x 40 cm x 25 cm (L x W x H)
Weight: 5 kg
Computer Requirements: 1 free USB socket; 512 MB RAM or more; Microsoft Windows XP/Vista/7/8/10

Accessories


P515/535 Emitter-Detector Module

P515/535 Emitter Head DUAL-EP515

Measuring light: 520 and 550 nm dual wavelength pair, 535 nm single wavelength
Actinic light: Chip-on-board LED array, identical to that of Measuring Head DUAL-E
Dimensions: 10.5 cm x 5.5 cm x 7 cm (L x W x H)
Weight: 400 g (incl. cable, 1 m long)

P515/535 Detector Head DUAL-DP515

Signal detection: PIN photodiode with special pulse preamplifier
Dimensions: 15 cm x 5.5 cm x 7 cm (L x W x H)
Weight: 400 g (incl. cable, 1 m long)

Acridine Orange Fluorescence Emitter-Detector Module

Acridine Orange Emitter Head DUAL-EAO

AO measuring light: 455 nm
Dimensions: 10.5 cm x 5.5 cm x 7 cm (L x W x H)
Weight: 400 g (incl. cables, 1 m long)

Acridine Orange Detector Head DUAL-DAO

Signal detection: PIN photodiode with special pulse preamplifier
Chlorophyll fluorescence measuring light: Modulated excitation at 620 nm
Actinic light: Blue (460 nm) LED lamp for continuous actinic illumination, maximum PAR 700 μmol m-2 s-1. Chip-on-board LED array identical to that of DUAL-E measuring head
Dimensions: 15 cm x 5.5 cm x 7 cm (L x W x H)
Weight: 500 g (incl. cable, 1 m long)

NADPH Fluorescence Emitter-Detector Module Emitter Head DUAL-ENADPH

NADPH measuring light: 365 nm
Chlorophyll fluorescence measuring light: Modulated excitation 620 nm
Actinic light: Far red LED lamp: 740 nm. Chip-on-board LED array identical to that of DUAL-E
Dimensions: 15 cm x 5.5 cm x 7 cm (L x W x H)
Weight: 500 g

Detector Head DUAL-DNADPH

Signal detection: Blue-sensitive photomultiplier with filter sandwich transmitting from 420-550 nm
Dimensions: 10 cm x 6.5 cm x 10.5 cm (L x W x H)
Weight: 460 g (incl. cable, 1 m long)

Detectors with Increased Sensitivity: DUAL-DPD and DUAL-DPM

Photodiode Detector DUAL-DPD

Signal detection: PIN photodiode with special pulse preamplifier
Filter holder: For optical filters (standard 30 x 30 mm), up to 15 mm thick
Dimensions: 9.7 cm x 7.1 cm x 7.8 cm (L x W x H)
Weight: 350 g

Photomultiplier Detector DUAL-DPM

Signal detection: 8 mm diameter side-on photomultiplier tube with a high voltage power supply assembled in a compact aluminium housing (Hamamatsu H6779)
Filter holder: With cover. For optical filters (standard 30 x 30 mm), up to 15 mm thick
Dimensions: 100 mm x 66 mm x 108 mm (L x W x H)
Weight: 490 g (incl. cable, 1.5 m long)

Amplifier Box PM-101/N

Included in extent of delivery of NADPH/9-AA Photomultiplier Detector Unit or Photomultiplier Detector DUAL-DPM.

Design: Aluminium chassis with texture paint. Line input 115/230 V AC, 50-60 Hz, 0.04/0.02 A. Two rotary buttons permit selection of 6 coarse amplification factors which 11 subdivisions.
Dimensions: 11 cm x 11 cm x 7 cm (L x W x H)
Weight: 700 g

Special Cuvettes: ED-101US/MD, DUAL-K25 and 3010-DUAL

Optical Unit for Suspensions ED-101US/MD

Design: Black-anodised aluminium body with central 10 x 10 mm standard glass cuvette; for attachment of Measuring Heads DUAL-DB (or DUAL-DR) and DUAL-E and Miniature Magnetic Stirrer PHYTO-MS; additional ports for attachment of two additional measuring heads (e.g. acridine orange, and NADPH fluorescence)
Weight: 750 g

Accessories for ED-101US/MD

Temperature Control Block ED-101US/T: Sectioned block with central 10 x 10 mm opening to be mounted on top of the ED-101US/MD unit; to be connected to external flow-through water bath (not included), weight: 250 g
Miniature Magnetic Stirrer PHYTO-MS: Based on device manufactured by h+p (type Variomag-Mini); featuring adapter to be mounted in bottom port of the Optical Unit ED-101US/MD; powered and controlled by the Power-and-Control-Unit DUAL-C
Spherical Micro Quantum Sensor US-SQS/WB: 3.7 mm Ø diffusing sphere coupled to integrated PAR sensor via 2 mm diameter fibre; compact amplifier unit and special holder for mounting on Optical Unit ED-101US/MD; to be connected to the Power-and-Control-Unit DUAL-C

DUAL-PAM-100 Gas-Exchange Cuvette 3010-DUAL

Design: Cuvette consisting of a sandwich of two 2 x 2 cm aluminium frames, each holding the end part of a Walz standard Perspex rod to connect various measuring heads of the DUAL-PAM-100. Sealing material between frames and leaf: silicon foam gasket. Distance between Perspex rod and leaf: ca. 1 mm on each leaf side.
Pneumatically separated upper and lower cuvette halves, controlled by a regulator unit with sockets for cable connections to the 3000 C control unit of the GFS-3000. Leaf area examined: 1.3 cm2. Leaf temperature measurement: thermocouple, range -10 to +50°C, accuracy ±0.2°C. External cosine-corrected Micro Quantum Sensor MQS/A for PAR measurements ranging from 0 to 2500 μmol m-2 s-1, accuracy ±5%
Operating temperature: -5 to +45°C
Dimensions: Assembled cuvette: 10 cm x 4 cm x 12 cm (L x W x H), electronic box: 7 cm x 7 cm x 15 cm (L x W x H)
Weight: Cuvette, regulator unit, cables, and mounting frame: 1.7 kg; mounting stand ST-101: 2 kg

Cuvette for Low-Drift Absorbance Measurements DUAL-K25

Design: Quartz glass cuvette, cross section: 10 mm x 10 mm, external dimensions: 12.5 mm x 12.5 mm x 26 mm (L x W x H). Special cuvette holder to position the cuvette between two measuring heads. U-shaped black-anodised aluminium shields to screen out external light. Three sealing gaskets to protect lower measuring head from spills.

Temperature Control Unit US-T

Power-and-Control Unit US-T/DR

Display: Three line LCD display
Control range: 0°C to 50°C at 0.1 K steps
Operating voltage: 11 V – 14 V DC
Maximum Peltier current: 1 A
Size: 105 mm x 90 mm x 130 mm (W x H x D)
Weight: 0.57 kg

Peltier Heat-Transfer Head US-T/DS

Achievable temperatures: 12 K below ambient temperature, 15 K above ambient temperature (Quartz cuvette placed in Optical Unit for Suspensions ED-101US/MD with 1.5 mL water and stirrer PHYTO-MS on)
Size: Æ 55 mm, 110 mm height
Cable length: 130 cm
Weight: 0.29 kg (including cable)

AC Adapter

Input: 100 V – 240 V AC 1.5 A 50-60 Hz
Output: 12 V DC 5.5 A
Size: 130 mm x 56 mm x 30 mm (L x W x H)
Weight: 0.50 kg (including cable)

DUAL-PAM-100 instruments can measure simultaneously a single-channel signal (e.g., chlorophyll fluorescence) and a two-channel signal (e.g. P700- dependent absorption changes at 820 nm relative to 870 nm). Also, a single wavelength and a dual wavelength absorption signal can be concurrently measured as in the case of the P515/535 setup for parallel determination of the electrochromic band shift and scattering changes. For the DUAL-PAM-100, a ground-breaking pulse-modulation technique has been developed. This new technique forms the basis for measuring pairs of signals concurrently and at outstandingly high time resolution.

Other Distinctive Features of the DUAL-PAM-100

Integrated red, blue, far-red actinic LED lamps and saturating single and multiple turnover flash lamps.

An extremely wide range of measuring light frequencies (1 Hz to 400 kHz) allows assessment of Fo level fluorescence as well as recording of fast kinetics at high time resolution (e.g. polyphasic fluorescence rise or flash relaxation kinetics). Extension of the saturation pulse method to derive from P700 measurements information on the use of absorbed light energy in PSI.

All light sources can be switched with 2.5 µs time resolution under software control.  Operation via automated measuring routines (script file programming).